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但以净值来看,国际贸易也扩大了整体经济规模,因为这意味着各国可以集中精力做任何自己最擅长的事情,在生产特定商品的生产力相对较高的地区生产这些商品。李嘉图(David Ricardo)的比较优势理论表明,各国的相对优势来自要素禀赋(factor endowments)的差异。经济学家保罗·克鲁格曼 (Paul Krugman)和埃尔哈南·埃尔曼 (Elhanan Helpman)在上世纪80年代指出,各国的相对优势也与它们在各专门化领域的投资有关。

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