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为何资本主义需要民粹主义

芝加哥—大企业在美国饱受抨击。面临强烈的本地反对,亚马逊去取消了在纽约市皇后区建造新总部的计划。南加利福尼亚州共和党参议员林赛·格雷厄姆(Lindsey Graham)表示担心Facebook难寻敌手的市场地位,而他的民主党参议员同事、马萨诸塞州的伊丽莎白·沃伦(Elizabeth Warren)要求 Facebook拆分。沃伦还引入立法,要求在公司董事会为工人保留40%的席位。

这些方案兴许已经超越了自由市场资本主义的边界,但当前的争论正是美国所需要的。放眼美国历史,资本主义的批评者确保了资本主义的合理运转。他们抨击经济权力的集中以及由此带来的政治影响力。当一小撮公司主宰了经济,它们就难免与国家控制机器结合起来,形成私人和公共部门精英所组成的邪恶联盟。

俄罗斯就是如此,只不过披上了民主和资本主义的幌子。通过保持对商品采掘和银行的完全控制,依附于克里姆林宫的寡头们扼杀了有意义的经济和政治竞争的可能性。事实上,俄罗斯堪称美国总统艾森豪威尔在其1961年告别演说中所描述的问题的典范。艾森豪威尔劝诫美国人要“警惕”通过“军事-工业混合体”和“错误的权力的灾难性崛起的可能”实现的“对不必要的影响力的获取”。

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